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On October 23, 1992, while the Boston Harbor case was still on trial, President George H.W. Bush signed Executive Order 12818 prohibiting federal authorities from carrying out union work exclusively for construction projects. [14] Bush`s ordinance prohibiting the use of LTCs in federal construction projects. [15] The Clinton administration rescinded that order when President Bill Clinton issued Executive Order 12836 in February 1993, shortly after taking office. [16] This contract allowed federal authorities to finance construction projects for which contractors needed a PLA. [17] A month later, the U.S. Supreme Court unanimously upheld the implementation of public projects agreements in the Boston Harbor Cleanup case. [5] The Supreme Court held that if the government was in the role of a regulatory authority, it was not in a position to require the use of PLA in accordant to the principles of pre-emption of labour law, but it could choose to do so as a market player without being anticipated by the National Labor Relations Act. [10] The Court did not consider whether state-imposed APAs were legal under the federal or federal competition laws. The decision led to increased use of GPs in U.S. public works projects[9] [10] On February 27, 2001, President George W.

Bush signed Executive Order 13202, “Preservation of Open Competition and Government Neutrality Towards Government Contractors Labor Relations on Federal and Federally Funded Construction Projects,” which prohibits the use of PLA for construction projects with federal funds. [21] In that decision, it was said that federally funded construction projects could not impose project work contracts. [22] In practical terms, the decision specifies that neither the federal government nor a federal aid agency can compel or prohibit construction contractors from signing union contracts as a precondition for carrying out work on federally funded construction projects. [21] The contract allowed all previously agreed-upon LASs to proceed and did not result in projects that did not receive federal funding. [23] Bush`s ordinance overturned the previous executive order regarding the PLA, the Clinton Ordinance of 12836, which annulled The Executive Order of President George H.W. Bush in 1992. [16] In April 2001, President George W. Bush issued an amendment to exclude certain drafts from the order if, at the time of the contract, a contract had already been awarded under an existing PLA.

[24] In 1997, Clinton proposed an executive order that requires federal authorities to consider the use of LTOs for Federally funded projects. [18] Republicans strongly opposed it and believed it would limit federal projects to union entrepreneurs alone. Clinton abandoned the executive proposal,[19] but issued a memorandum on June 5, 1997 inviting federal departments to consider the use of LTOs for “large and important” projects. [20] The memorandum required government authorities to re-extend each project to decide whether a PLA would allow the authority to increase efficiency and reduce costs. [17] A project employment contract requires all contractors, whether unionized or not, to submit to union training and their employees to work on a state-funded construction project.