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Dominique Michel: Most framework agreements include monitoring mechanisms involving the participation of trade unions. These mechanisms include specific actions by management and workers` representatives, such as the dissemination (and, if necessary, translation) of the enterprise-wide agreement, or the development of joint training programmes. Some agreements provide for joint missions by the relevant national union and the World Trade Union Association to monitor the implementation of the agreement on the ground. Most of them also have mechanisms for the World Confederation of Trade Unions to deal with a case if the company violates the terms of the agreement. Dominique Michel: An international (or global) framework agreement (IFA) is an instrument negotiated between a multinational and a Federation of the World Union (GUF) to establish an ongoing relationship between the parties and to ensure that the company meets the same standards in all the countries in which it operates. The sectoral unions in the multinational`s country of origin are also involved in the negotiations of the agreement. Although framework agreements are not CSR initiatives, they are often cited in the CSR debate, as they are one of the ways in which companies can express their commitment to certain principles. However, the specific aspect that distinguishes framework agreements from CSR initiatives is that they are the result of negotiations with international workers` representatives. Framework agreements are therefore one of the possible developments in labour relations in the age of globalization.

Global framework agreements are negotiated globally between trade unions and a multinational. They apply the best standards for trade union rights, health, safety and environmental practices and the quality of working principles in all of a company`s overall business activities, whether or not these standards exist in a single country. ILO Online: How many companies have signed these contracts so far? ILO References (2018), International Framework Agreement in Food Distribution, Clothing and Chemistry: Lessons from Three Case Studies, Geneva. IndustriALL (2019), IndustriALL suspends a global agreement with Volkswagen on 21 January. Uni Global Union (2018), UNI Global Union and Banco ItaƩ extend global agreement on workers` rights, 23 October. IndustriALL (2014), guidelines for Global Framework Agreements (GFA), Geneva. ILO (1998), ILO statement on fundamental principles and rights in the workplace, Geneva. Carrefour (2018), UNI Global Union and Carrefour strengthen global cooperation, Annecy. Uni Global Union (2018), Global Agreement between BNP Paribas and UNI Global Union promotes workers` rights, gender equality for the company`s 200,000 workers worldwide, Nyon.